Curriculum Development: The Philippine Experience

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Department of Education b. Materials of the Educators Congress. Pasig City, Philippines: DepEd. Department of Education c.


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Pasig City: DepEd. Department of Education Pasig City,Philippines: DepEd. Delors, J. Learning: The Treasure Within. Diaz, M. A review of selected textbooks and other instructional media for Sibika at Kultura in elementary schools. Haw, G. Education for the 21st Century in the Asia-Pacific Region.


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    Makabayan curriculum for secondary schools in the Philippines: The development of citizenship. CrossRef Google Scholar. Miralao, V. A review of the technology and home economics textbooks and curriculum in secondary schools. Saxe , however, refuted the popular belief that the document created the term Social Studies. Saxe also noted that Social Studies was made part of the school curriculum in by Edmund James, president of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences. Using the natural sciences model of grouping the fields of geology, mineralogy, biology, etc.

    Those who considered the document as primary in engendering Social Studies also noted that the goal of citizenship education was expounded in three strands: transmission, transformation, and progressivism. Addressing the specific needs of the times as a preservation of democratic life, b preparation of citizens for industrialized economy, and c initiation of immigrants to the American way of life, it established the goal of producing good citizens by transmitting to students the knowledge, values, or culture needed in a democratic society.

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    Citizenship education also recognized the study of social problems as a necessary part of the education of citizens. Thus, the aim of social studies to develop good citizens included the citizen taking action to solve a problem and transform his environment.

    The third strand woven into this discourse was the fact that citizenship education started with the teaching principle on student needs and interest. Fallace concluded that the committee report was Dewey-inspired and drew much from him and his progressive peers. Since then Social Studies as a subject became part of the school curriculum. When the Great Depression happened in the s, studying social problems and issues proved to be inadequate. The purpose of Social Studies then shifted from citizenship education to social reconstruction. Problems were studied not because they were the immediate concern of the individual student, but because Social Studies had to take part in creating social change.

    During World War II, citizenship education again became the central emphasis of Social Studies, but with a focused attention on patriotism and current events. Emphasis was on reflective process, studying problems meaningful to youth, and building the right attitudes rather than learning a specific content. In the s and s, a study on the historical illiteracy of American school children and the launching of Sputnik by the Soviets called for a more rigorous academic study of the social sciences, moving away from the study of social problems.

    In , the publication of A Nation at Risk led to a proposed curriculum pattern emphasizing historical studies and recommended that schools adopt more rigorous, measurable standards and heighten expectations for academic performance. This study analyzed the curriculum documents of Social Studies from — see Table 2. Curriculum Revisions in Elementary and Secondary Social Studies, — based on curriculum titles. Educational goals in the s— were crafted within specific political contexts and consequently, such contexts define how the goals were articulated.

    The elementary and secondary Social Studies curricula therefore spanned within the contexts of two political eras, i. This change in the political set-up transformed the articulation of educational goals across the said periods. While the goals reiterated the goals of the previous elementary curriculum The Revised Elementary Education Program, , the goals Implementation of the New Secondary, were not a reiteration of the secondary curriculum Department of Education and Culture, Instead, the goals were revised to reflect the changes in the political scene.

    The acquisition of work skills had to be matched with work ethics in , putting forward the need for values.

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    Lastly, the arts and sciences, then seen as sources of pleasures and profit, were now viewed not only for self-fulfillment but also for promoting the welfare of others. The NSEC was launched three years after Marcos was unseated from power through a non-violent revolution. As democracy was restored, then Department of Education Secretary Lourdes Quisumbing implemented the Values Education Programme to strengthen the moral fiber of the Filipino people, weakened by 14 years of dictatorship. NSEC used this values education framework to transform the goals of secondary education accordingly, as was discussed.

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    The production of instructional materials was also affected by these political changes. During the Marcos era, the Textbook Board, the body that selects and approves textbooks for elementary and secondary schools, was replaced by the Textbook Council, whose members were confined to the Minister of Education and Culture, the Directors of the Bureau of Elementary and Bureau of Secondary Education, and two presidential appointees Creating the Textbook Council, In comparison, the Board of Textbooks created in was composed of presidential appointees who were not from the Department of Education An Act Creating a Board, Also, in the Instructional Materials Corporation IMC was created as the agency in charge of 1 production and distribution of textbooks and instructional materials for public schools, and 2 formulating policy recommendations and standards governing textbooks and instructional materials for adoption of the Textbook Council Creating the Textbook Council, Given such power, IMC was able to monopolize the production of textbooks for all public schools and reduce the role of private publishers to mere reproduction of IMC-produced textbooks.

    From —, however, private publishers resumed production and distribution of textbooks. In , R. Used for:. Curriculum development. Curriculum improvement. Curriculum planning. Broader Terms:. Educational planning. Related Terms:. Course content. Curriculum based assessment.

    Curriculum design. Curriculum enrichment. Curriculum evaluation. Curriculum mapping.

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    Instructional development. School based curriculum.

    Curriculum Development

    Basic References. Abbas, Khan M. Teacher's handbook of curriculum management. FIL Advanced curriculum construction. CIR Andres, Tomas Quintin D. Curriculum development in the Philippine setting. Aquino, Gaudencio V. Curriculum development : principles and techniques. Curriculum innovation.

    Bago, Adelaida L.

    University Library

    Curriculum development : the Philippine experience. Bauzon, Prisciliano T. Foundations of curriculum development and management. Brady, Laurie. Curriculum construction. Curriculum in early childhood : a resource guide for preschool and kindergarten teachers. REF Curriculum, plans and processes in instructional design : international perspectives. The Curriculum studies reader.